ارزیابی آلودگی فلزات سنگین در رسوبات سطحی مصب رودخانه شور، شرق بندرعباس با استفاده از شاخص‌های مختلف

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد ارزیابی و آمایش سرزمین

2 برنامه‌ریزی و مدیریت مناطق ساحلی، دانشگاه هرمزگان

3 علوم طبیعی و محیط زیست، مرکز مطالعات جنگل‌های حرا، دانشگاه هرمزگان

چکیده

لذا، برای تعیین درجه آلودگی و کیفیت زیست‌محیطی رسوبات منطقه، نمونه‌های رسوب سطحی (5-0 سانتی‌متر) از 4 ایستگاه جمع‌آوری شدند. در هر ایستگاه، سه نمونه رسوب سطحی جمع‌آوری و غلظت فلزات سنگینبا استفاده از اسپکتروفتومتر جذب اتمی شعله اندازه‌گیری شد.سپسشاخص‌هایی همچون شاخص بار آلودگی و شاخص ریسک اکولوژیکی برای هر یک از ایستگاه‌های نمونه‌برداری و منطقه مورد مطالعه برآوردهشده است.نتایجPLIنشان داد که بار یا غلظت فلزات سنگین نزدیک به غلظت زمینه است و آلودگی خاصی ایجاد نمی‌کنند. تمام ایستگاه‌ها نیز ریسک اکولوژیکی کمی داشتند.همچنین مقادیر متوسط فلزات سنگین مذکور در منطقه مورد مطالعه با استانداردهای کیفیت رسوب مقایسه شده‌اند. مقادیر نیکل از حد معمول این استانداردها در هر دو سطح تجاوز نموده واثرات مضر زیادی برای آبزیان و جوامع بیولوژیک دارد؛در حالی‌که غلظت فلزات روی وسرب در رسوبات منطقه مورد مطالعه تهدید خاصی برای موجودات مختلف ایجاد نمی‌کنند.در ادامه با استفاده از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و آنالیز خوشه‌ای، میزان ارتباط و همبستگی بین مقادیر فلزات مذکور بررسی شد.حداکثر مقدار همبستگی، بین فلزات آهن و نیکل (r=0.838; p

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


Abrahim, G.M.S., Parker, R.J. 2008. Assessment of heavy metal enrichment factors and the degree of contamination in marine sediments from Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 136(1-3): 227–238.

Acosta, J.A., Faz, A., Mrtinez, S.M. 2009. Identification of heavy metal sources by multivariable analysis in a typical Mediterranean city (SE Spain), Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 169(1): 519-530.

Adamo, P., Arienzo, M., Imperato, M., Naimo, D., Nardi, G. & Stanzione, D. 2005. Distribution and partition of heavy metals in surface and sub-surface sediments of Naples city Port. Chemosphere. 61(6): 800-809.

Adomako, D., Nyarko, B.J.B, Dampare, S.B., Serfor- Armah, Y., Osae, S., Fianko, J.R. & Akaho, E.H.K. 2008. Determination of toxic elements in waters and sediments from River Subin in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 141(1-3): 165- 175.

Agah, H., Leermakers, M., Gao, Y., Fatemi, S.M.R., Mohseni Katal, M., Baeyens, W. & Elskens, M. 2010. Mercury accumulation in fish species from the Persian Gulf and in human hair from fishermen. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 169(1-4): 203–216.

Alizadeh, M. 2008. Aquiculture and Environment.  Fisheries Research Center Press, Tehran, pp. 314. (In Persian)

Berkowitz B, Dror I, Yaron B. 2008. Contaminant Geochemistry: Interactions and Transport in the Subsurface Environment. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 412 p.

Bowen, H.J.M. 1966. Trace elements in biochemistry, Academic Press London.

Casado-Martinez, M.C., Forja, J.M. & DelValls, T.A. 2009. A multivariate assessment of sediment contamination in dredged materials from Spanish ports. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 163(2-3): 1353–1359.

Casas, J.M., Rosas, H., Sole, M. & Lao, C. 2003. Heavy matals and metalloids in sediments from the Llobregat basin, Spain. Environmental Geology. 44(3): 325-332.

Choueri, R.B., Cesar, A., Torres, R.J., Abessa, D.M.S., Morais, R.D., Pereira, C.D.S., Nascimento, M.R.L., Mozeto, A.A., Riba,I & DelValls, T.A. 2009. Integrated sediment quality assessment in Paranagua´ Estuarine System, Southern Brazil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 72: 1824–1831.

De Mora S. Sheikholeslami MR. 2002. Contaminant screening program. Final report. Interpretation of Caspian Sea Sediment Data; pp 27.

Delman, O., Demirak, A. & Balci, A. 2006. Determination of heavy metals (Cd, Pb) and trace elements (Cu, Zn) in sediments and fish of the southeast ern Aegean sea (Turkey) by atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chemistry. 95(1): 157-162.

Department of Environment (DOE), Branch of Hormozgan province. 2009. Introduction of Wetlands in the East of Hormozgan province. (In Persian)

Gargouri, D., Azri, Ch., Serbaji, M. M., Jedoui, Y & Montacer, M. 2011. Heavy metal concentrations in the surface marine sediments of Sfax Coast, Tunisia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 175: 519–530.

Ghrefat, H., Yusuf, N. 2006. Assessing Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Cd pollution in bottom sediments of Wadi Al-Arab Dam, Jordan. Chemosphere. 65(11): 2114-2121.

Guo, R., He, X. 2013. Spatial variations and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments on the upper reaches of Hun River, Northeast China. Environmental Earth Sciences. 70: 1083–1090.

Hakanson, L. 1980. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Research, 14(8): 975–1001.

Hakanson, L., Jansson, M. 1983. Principles of lake Sedimentology. Springer, Berlin.

Ismail, A. 1993. Heavy metal concentration in sediments of Bintulu, Malaysia. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 26: 706–707.

Jafari Haghighi, M. 2003. Methods of soil analysis: physical and chemical sampling and important chemical and physical analysis with emphasis on theory and practice. pp 236. (In Persian)

Jamshidi Zanjani, A., Saidi, M. 2013. Contamination assessment and zoning quality of surface sediment of Anzali Wetland base on result of heavy metals indices. Ecology. 39(4): 157-170. (In Persian)

Kabata-Pendias A., Mukherjee, A.B. 2007. Trace Elements from Soil to Human, Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York.

Khaled, A., ElNemr, A., ElSikaily, A. 2006. An assessment of heavy metal contamination in surface sediments of the Suez Gulf using geoaccumulation indexes and statistical analysis. Chemistry and Ecology. 22(3): 239-252.

Khedhiri, S., Semhi, K.h., Duplay, J. & Darragi, F. 2011. Comparison of sequential extraction and principal component analysis for determination of heavy metal partitioning in sediments: the case of protected Lagoon El Kelbia (Tunisia). Environmental Earth Sciences, 62: 1013–1025.

Kwon, Y. T., Lee, C.W., 1998. Application of multiple ecological risk indices for the evaluation of heavy metal contamination in a coastal dredging area. Science of the Total Environment. 214: 203-210.

Li, J., He, M., Han, W., Gu, Y. 2009. Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 164(2-3):976–981.

Liu, M., Yang, Y., Yun, X., Zhang, M., Li, Q. X., Wang, J. 2013. Distribution and ecological assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of the East Lake, China. Ecotoxicology. 23:92-101.

Long, E.R., MacDonald, D.D., Smith, S.L., & Calder, F.D. 1995. Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments. Environmental Management. 19(1): 81–97.

Long, E.R., Morgan, L.G. 1990. The potential for biological effects of sediment sorbed contaminants tested in the National States and Trends Program. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Technical Memorandum No.5, OMA52, NOAA National Ocean Service Washington. 68p.

Mashiatullah, A., Chaudhary, M.Z., Ahmad, N., Javed, T., Ghaffar, A. 2013. Metal pollution and ecological risk assessment in marine sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 185:1555–1565.

McGraph, D., Zhang, C.S., Carton, O., 2004. Geostatistical analyses and hazard assessment on soil lead in Silvermines, area Ireland. Environmental Pollution. 127: 239-248.

Mucha AP. Vasconcelos MT. Bordalo A.A. 2003. Macrobenthic community in the Douro estuary: relations with trace metals and natural sediment characteristics, Environmental Pollution; 121: 169-180.

Naji, A., Ismail, A. 2012. Sediment quality assessment of Klang Estuary, Malaysia. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 15(3): 287–293.

Nriago JO. Pacyna JM. 1988. Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water and soils by trace metals, Nature; 333: 134-139.

Nyangababo, J.T., Henry, L., & Omutunge, E. 2005. Heavy metal contamination in plants, sediments and air precipitation of Katonga, Simiyu and Nyando wetlands of Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 75(1): 189–196.

Qishlag, A., Moore, F., Forghani, G. 2007. Impact of untreated wastewater irrigation on soils and crops in Shiraz suburban area, SW Iran. Environmental Monitiring and Assessment. 141(1-3): 257- 273.

Reynolds, R.M. 1993. Physical Oceanograghy of the Gulf, Strait of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman- Results from Mt Mitchell Expedition. Marine pollution Bulletin. 27: 35-59.

Seralathan, P., Meenakshikutty, N.R., Asaref, K.V. & Padmalal. D. 1993. Sediment and organic carbon distribution in the Cochin harbor area. Indian Journal of Marine Science. 22(4):225–252.

Singh, K.P., Mohan, D., Singh, V.K., Malik, A. 2005. Studies on distribution and fractionation of heavy metalsin Gomti river sediments a tributary of the Ganges. Journal of Hydrology. 312(1-4): 14-27.

Singh, M., Muller, G., Sinhg, B.I. 2002. Heavy metals in freshly deposited stream sediments of rivers associated with urbanization of the Ganga plain, India. Water, Air and Soil Pollutioin. 141(1-4): 35- 54.

Spanos, T., Simeonov, V., Simeonova, P., Apostolidou, E & Stratis, J. 2008. Environmetrics to evaluate marine environment quality. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 143(1-3): 215–225.

Spencer. K.L., Macleod, C.L. 2002. Distribution and Partitioning of Heavy Metals in Estuarine Sediment Cores and Implications for the Use of Sediment Quality Standards. Hydrology and Earth System Science. 6: 989-998.

Steiger, B., Webster, R., Schulin, R., Lehmann, R., 1996. Mapping heavy metals in polluted soil by disjunctive kriging. Environmental Pollution. 94: 205-215.

Tam, N.F.Y., Wong, Y.S. 2000. Spatial variation of heavy metals in surface sediments of Hong Kong mangrove swamps. Environmental Pollution, 110(2): 195-205.

Tomllinson, D.L., Wilson, J.G., Harriss, C.R. & Jeffrey, D.W. 1980. Problems in the assessment of heavy metals levels in estuaries and the formation of pollution index. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen. 33(1-4): 566-575.

Turekian, K.K., Wedepohl, K.H. 1961. Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth’s crust. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 72(2): 175–92.

Varol, M. 2011. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments of the Tigris River (Turkey) using pollution indices and multivariate statistical techniques. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 195: 355– 364.

Vertacnik A, Prohic E, Kozar S, Juracic M. 1995. Behavior of some trace elements in alluvial sediments, Zagreb water-well field area, Croatia. Water Research. 29: 237-46.

Wei, Binggan., Jiang, Fengqing., Li, Xuemei & Mu, Shuyong. 2010. Heavy metal induced ecological risk in the city of Urumqi, NW China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 160: 33–45.

Wu, Z., He, M., Lin, C., Fan, Y. 2011. Distribution and speciation of four heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mn and Ni) in the surficial sediments from estuary in daliao river and yingkou bay. Environmental Earth Sciences, 63: 163–175.

Wu, Z., He, M., Lin, C., Fan, Y. 2011. Distribution and speciation of four heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mn and Ni) in the surficial sediments from estuary in daliao river and yingkou bay. Environmental Earth Sciences. 63: 163–175.

Yi, Y., Yang, Z. & Zhang, S. 2011. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. Environmental Pollution, 159(10): 2575–2585