تعیین حساسیت زیست محیطی نوار ساحلی استان هرمزگان از دیدگاه زمین ریخت شناسی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

برای ارزیابی حساسیت فیزیکی منطقه ساحلی هرمزگان شش معیار و 29 شاخص مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. بررسی معیارها و تعیین ضریب اهمیت شاخص های به کار رفته در آنها نشان داد شاخص انحصاری بودن و بکر بودن به ترتیب بیشترین اهمیت و وابستگی صنعتی کمترین اهمیت را در تعیین ساختارهای فیزیکی حساس ایفا می کنند. همچنین به منظور تعیین اهمیت و اولویت بندی ساختارهای فیزیکی محدوده مورد مطالعه براساس معیارهای یاد شده 9 ساختار فیزیکی (چهار ساختار در ناحیه ساحلی و پنج ساختار در ناحیه کرانه) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد، کرانه های گلی در معرض آبگرفتگی در ناحیه کرانه و ناحیه ساحلی کم ارتفاع و کم شیب در ناحیه ساحلی به ترتیب دارای بیشترین حساسیت بود. پس از بررسی ساختارهای فیزیکی براساس معیارهای یاد شده و تهیه نقشه حاصل از همپوشانی ساختارهای مورد بررسی، پهنه بندی حساسیت نوار ساحلی استان هرمزگان در پنج طبقه حساسیت خیلی کم، حساسیت کم، حساسیت متوسط، حساسیت زیاد و حساسیت خیلی زیاد تهیه شد. بیشترین وسعت طبقه های حساسیت فیزیکی، مربوط به طبقه دارای حساسیت کم بود که این مناطق بیشتر در ناحیه ساحلی قرار گرفته است. کمترین گستردگی نیز مربوط به طبقه دارای حساسیت متوسط بود. مناطق دارای حساسیت خیلی زیاد در بخش هایی از شهرستان میناب و در نزدیکی تیاب و بندزرک همچنین در مناطقی از شهرستان بندرعباس، بندر جاسک و سیریک قرار گرفته است. اولویت بندی شاخص ها و حساسیت ساختارهای فیزیکی با استفاده از تحلیل سلسله مراتبی و تلفیق نقشه ها در سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی انجام شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


Agardi, T. 1989. Guide for Planning Of Reserves Biosphere. In HenrikMadjnoonian and JamshidMansouri.Application of the Biosphere Reserve in Coastal-Marine Areas.Department of Environment. Tehran, 2005, 46-51.

Akhavan, H., 2010. Determine of Sensitivity of Hormozgan Province West Shoeline by ESI with Aim of Pollution management. M.Sc thesis. Management of Environment group. Islamic Azad University, Bandar-Abbas Branch, 193p. (in Persian)

Akhavan, H., Sharifipour, R., Danehkar, A. 2010. Determine of Physical Sensitivity of Hormozgan Province West Shoeline with Environmental Sensitivity Index. 9th International Conference ICOPMAS (2010)

Blanco and Gabaldon. 1992. Inherent Sensitivity Matrix Management Unit. In H. Madjnoonian.Protected Areas of Iran: principles & Guidelines for Conservation and Management of Protected Area. Annex 35. Iran Department of Environment. Tehran, 2000: 469-470.

Bower, B.T. & Turner, R.K. (1998) Characterisingamd analyzing benefits from integrated coastal management (ICM). Ocean and Coastal Management 38: 41–66.

Chegini, V. 2011. Dictionary of Coastal Engineering and Physics Sea. National Institute of Oceanography, Tehran, 784 p.

 

 

شکل4- نقشه طبقه بندی حساسیت فیزیکی نوار ساحلی هرمزگان

 

Conservation of World Heritage Convention, 1975. Guild line for World Heritage selection (Natural and Cultural). In Henrik majnonian. Iran protected Area: Basics of protection parks and areas, Appendix 80, Environmental Protection Agency, Tehran, 623-627.

CPAWS 2011. Science-based Guidelines for Marine Protected Areas and MPA Networks in Canada.

Danehkar, A., 2003. Identification and Selection Criteria for Sea Sensitive Area in Iran. Bandarodarya 101 and 102, 8-12. (in Persian)

Danehkar, A., Madjnoonian, H., 2004. Proposed Criteria for the Assessment of Coastal-Marine Areas in order to Determination Coastal-Marine Protected Area, Case Study: Protected Area in Caspian sea. Mohitshenasi 35, 9-32. (in Persian)

Danehkar, A., R, Sharifipour., J, Rafiee., B, Mahmoudi., R, Mosaddeghi. 2005. Zoning and determining the ecological sensitivity of the coast in Sistan va Balochesta Provence, Office of Environmental Protection in sistan va Balochestan.

Danehkar, A., R, Sharifipour., S, Razmjo. 2012. Assessment of Phisical Sensitivity in Hormozgan Coastal area by Using Environmental Sensitivity Index. 10th International Conference ICOPMAS (2012).

Danehkar, A., R, Varaste Moradi., A, Hashemi., A, Rezaii Lael. 2004. Zoning and determining the ecological sensitivity of the coast in Mazandaran Provence. Office of the Marine Environment in Iran Environmental Protection Agency.

Danehkar, A., R, Varaste Moradi., A, Hashemi., R, Mosaddeghi. 2004. . Zoning and determining the ecological sensitivity of the coast in Gilan Provence. Office of the Marine Environment in Iran Environmental Protection Agency.

Danehkar, A., R, Varaste Moradi., A, Hashemi., S, Modarresi. 2003. . Zoning and determining the ecological sensitivity of the coast in Gulestan Provence. Office of the Marine Environment in Iran Environmental Protection Agency.

Danehkar, A., R, Varaste Moradi., R, Sharifipour., M, Pourmohammadi. 2004. . Zoning and determining the ecological sensitivity of the coast in Boushehr Provence. Office of Environmental Protection in Boushehr.

Davar, L., 2007.Comparison of Effectiveness of NOAA and IMO Methods for Identification of Environmentally Sensitive Areas of Sistan and Balouchestan Shoreline. M.Sc thesis. Environmental Science-land use Planning and Assessment group. Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran. 204p. (in Persian)

Department of the Environment (IRAN), 2003. Committee Minutes of Sea sensitive Areas, Marine Environment Bureau, Tehran. (in Persian)

Donaldson, L. 1994. Safer Ships, Cleaner Seas: Report of Lord Donaldson’s Inquiry into the Prevention of Pollution from Merchant Shipping. Presented to UK Parliament.

Evans,M.I. 1994. Important bird areas in the Middle East. Bird life.

FAO. 1992. Sustainable development and the environment.Unpublished report, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

Gubby, S., R. Salm. A. Price. R. Kenchington. G. Kelleher. C. Blakly. D. Laffoley. J.C. Post. C.G. Lunding. 2005. Marine and Coastal Protected Area. Translated by: HenrikMadjnoonian&ParastuMirabzadeh. Publication: Iran Department of Environment.

Habibi, S., 2010. Comprehension of IMO&NOAA Methods for Determination of Hormozgan Province Coastal Environmental Sensitivity with SWOT Matrix. M.Sc thesis. Management of Environment group. Islamic Azad University, Bandar-Abbas Branch, 200p. (in Persian)

IMO/MEPC. 2007. Identification and Protection of Special Areas and Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas.International Maritime Organization.

IUCN. 1994.IUCN Red List Categories.IUCN,Gland, Switzerland.

Kelleher, G. and Kenchington, R. 1991. Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas. A Marine Conservation and Development Report.IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, vii + 72 pp.

Kiabi, B., H, Majnonian., H, Goshtasbi Meygoni., J, Mansoori. 2004. Proposed criteria for assessing the conservation status of Iranian wetlands. Journal of Ecology, (33), 74-89.

Kiabi, B., Zehzad, B. 1987. Selection of areas based on Habitat and Wildlife Assessment. . In Henrik majnonian. Iran protected Area: Basics of protection parks and areas, Appendix 22. Environmental Protection Agency, Tehran, 404-409.

Majnonian, H. 1991. Guide to Identify and Determine Natural National Works. Environmental Protection Agency, Tehran.

Makhdoom. M. 2000. Ecological Capacity Assessment Model for Conservation. . In Henrik majnonian. Iran protected Area: Basics of protection parks and areas, Appendix 91. Environmental Protection Agency, Tehran, 696-695.

Nikoobazl, A., A, Danehkar. 2009. Environmental sensitivity of coastal  relief in Hormozgan province. Science and Technology of the Sea, (49), 10-20.

Ports and Maritime Organization (PMO). 2009. Studies of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan. Summary of Outcome Studies. Department of Engineering of Port and Coastal: 217p. (in Persian)

Ramsar convention. 1990. Guide line for Identification of Important international Wetland. In Henrik majnonian. Iran protected Area: Basics of protection parks and areas, Appendix 9. Environmental Protection Agency, Tehran, 335-349.

Razmjo, S., 2010. Identification and Zoning sensitive Areas in Mazandaran by using ESI Indicator. M.Sc thesis. Environment Assessment group. Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Ahvaz. (in Persian).

Razmjo, S., A, Danehkar., R, Sharifipour., M.B, Nabavi. 2010. Assessment Coastal Sensitivity in Mazandaran Provence by using  IMO Method. 9th International Conference ICOPMAS (2010)

Rozbehi, M., M.R, fatemi., A, Danehkar. Identify and Determine Ecological Sensitivity Coastal in Gheshm Island By Using determination of Permanent Sub Section. 9th International Conference ICOPMAS (2010).

Rozbehi, M., M.R, fatemi., A, Danehkar., A, Javanshir khoii. 2009. Zoning and determining the ecological sensitivity of the coast in Gheshm Island, Environment Science and  Technology, 11(4), 237-249.

Sharifipour, R. 2007. Assessment sensitivity Coastal in Bushehr with Protection Information Model by Using GIS, Ph.D thesis. Department of Environment management, Azad University. Science and Technology Tehran  Branch.

Marpol. 1978. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978. Annexes I,II and V.

NOAA. 2002. Guideline for Environmental Sensitivity Index.Version 3.

OECD. 1997. OECD Policy Approaches for the 21st Century. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Growth and Development.

OSPAR Commission. 2011. Status Report on the OSPAR Network of Marine Protected Areas.

Ray, C. 1970. Criteria in selecting marine national parks.In H. Madjnoonian.Protected Areas of Iran: Principles & Guidelines for Conservation and Management of Protected Area. Annex 33. Iran Department of Environment. Tehran, 2000: 458-459.

Salm,R.V. &A.Price. 1995. Selection of Marine Protected Areas: Principles of Techniques for Management. Edited by Susan Gubby. Chapman and Hall, London.

Townend, I.H. 1990. Frameworks for shoreline management. International Navigation Association (PIANC-AIPCN) Bulletin 71: 72–80.

WCED. 1987. Our Common Future. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press: 398 pp.

WCS. 1980. Living resource Conservation for Sustainable Development.